By S. Julio. University of Michigan-Dearborn. 2018.

Through programming and the use of “plug-ins” (programs that can be downloaded from the internet) purchase cialis professional 20 mg with visa impotence brochures, designers can produce interactive course materials containing online activities (such as self assessments) purchase cialis professional 20 mg online erectile dysfunction treatment youtube, animations, and simulations. These can improve learning and are often more enjoyable and meaningful for learners. Glossary Distance learning E-conferencing—Use of online presentations and discussion forums (in real time or stored as downloadable files on a website) to avoid the Two of the main developments in web based learning have been need for participants to travel the adaptation of communication technology to support E-learning—Learning through electronic means, such as via the web learning and the changes in distance learning strategies (see world wide web), an intranet, or other multimedia materials necessary for delivering online courses. Both aspects should be HTML (hypertext markup language)—The language used to create web considered when designing or delivering web based learning pages. Lessons can be learned by considering how including wordprocessed files, spreadsheets, presentation slides, and other web pages distance education evolved. Hyperlinks—Links in web pages that enable the user to access another Distance and open learning began with correspondence web page (either on the same or a different site) with just one courses. The Open University in Britain is one of the best mouse click known examples of how university level education became Internet—A global network of computers divided into subsets (for accessible, through effective distance learning, to people who example, the web or email systems). Computers are linked to the had neither the traditional qualifications nor the time to enter internet via host computers, which link to other computers via dial up (for example, via a modem) and network connections full time higher education. Internet service provider (ISP)—Home users usually access the internet The secret of the Open University’s success lies in clearly through an internet service provider (such as AOL), which identifying students’ needs; providing effective, local support; maintains a network of PCs permanently connected to the internet and combining conventionally taught components with the use Intranet—A network of computers that share information, usually of up to date multimedia resources, including books, course within an organisation. Access normally requires a password and is guides, videotapes, audiotapes, television, e-conferencing, and limited to a defined range of users Managed learning environment (MLE)—Usually has an integrated discussion groups. Search engines (such as Lycos,Google)—Can be used to help to find information Web based learning is often called online learning or e-learning Videostreaming—The process by which video images are able to be because it includes online course content. These might be in real time (such as a conference) or used asynchronously email, videoconferencing, and live lectures (videostreaming) are Virtual learning environment (VLE)—A set of electronic teaching and all possible through the web. Principal components include systems that can map provide static pages such as printed course materials. All such programmes use HTML A “virtual” learning environment (VLE) or managed learning environment (MLE) is an all in one teaching and learning For additional information see www. A VLE typically combines functions such as 42 Web based learning discussion boards, chat rooms, online assessment, tracking of “Newer technologies such as computers students’ use of the web, and course administration. VLEs act as and video conferencing are not any other learning environment in that they distribute necessarily better (or worse) for teaching information to learners. VLEs can, for example, enable learners or learning than older technologies. The choice of focus of web based courses must always be on the technology should be driven by the needs learner—technology is not the issue, nor necessarily the answer. Technology, open learning and Models of web based learning distance education. London: Routledge, Several approaches can be used to develop and deliver web 1995 based learning. At one end is “pure” distance learning (in which course material, assessment, and support is all delivered online, with no face to face contact between students and teachers). At the other end is an organisational intranet, which replicates printed course Features of a typical web based course materials online to support what is essentially a traditional face x Course information, notice board, timetable to face course. However, websites that are just repositories of x Curriculum map knowledge, without links to learning, communication, and x Teaching materials such as slides, handouts, articles x Communication via email and discussion boards assessment activities, are not learner centred and cannot be x Formative and summative assessments considered true web based learning courses. The individual learner The first step in designing a web based course is to identify the Design of curriculum (taught course, directed learning, self learning) learners’ needs and whether the learners are to be considered as part of a group or as individual learners. The web can be a useful tool for bringing isolated learners together in “virtual” groups—for example, through a discussion forum. There are Feedback and modification Pedagogy several online resources on how to design web based learning to curriculum (delivery of teaching) programmes (for example, at www. Evaluation Assessment Questions to ask before starting a web based learning project (of learning process) (of student learning) x What is the educational purpose of the web based learning project? The learning cycle: useful to bear in mind when planning a web based x What resources and expertise on web based learning exist in the course institution? If not, the e-learning starter guides on the LTSN website are a good resource (www. This is normally done via an organisations and government agencies intranet, which is usually “password protected” and accessible x One subject centre covers medicine, dentistry, and veterinary only to registered users. Thus it is possible to protect the science (LTSN 01) intellectual property of online material and to support x Although not strictly web based learning, LTSN 01 uses a confidential exchange of communication between students. As students are usually in medical, dental, and veterinary education large groups for basic science teaching, web based learning can 43 ABC of Learning and Teaching in Medicine be used to provide learning materials to complement conventional programmes and to enable self assessment—for example, access to anatomical sites and image banks for the With web based learning, the material can be linked to teaching of pathology courses. Web based learning can be libraries (for example, for ordering books or journals), useful to support clinical teaching when learners are online databases, and electronic journals. These functions are particularly useful for research and clinical activities geographically dispersed—for example, to learn clinical skills through video demonstrations. Advantages and disadvantages of online assessment Assessment Advantages With all types of learning, including web based learning, it is x Students can receive quick feedback on their performance useful for students to receive constructive, timely, and relevant x Useful for self assessments—for example, multiple choice questions feedback on their progress. Online assessment is sometimes x A convenient way for students to submit assessment from remote sites constrained by the medium in which it is operating.

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Would they feel bad if they don’t ever wash their car but feel the researcher expects them to? If you need to ask this question discount cialis professional 20mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction guidelines, you should ask a filter question first to find out whether the respondent actually owned a car purchase cialis professional 40 mg otc erectile dysfunction from alcohol. Then you would need to ask: ‘If you wash your car, HOW TO CONSTRUCT QUESTIONNAIRES/ 91 how many times a year? Have a look at Exercise 2 which will help you to think about some of the issues involved in the wording and structuring of questions. EXERCISE 2 Read the following questions and decide what is wrong with them. What do you think about the Green Peace attempt to blackmail the Government? What is wrong with the young people of today and what can we do about it? The problem with this question is in the categories supplied for the answer. Everybody has a different idea as to what words such as ‘sometimes’ and ‘fre- quently’ mean. Instead, give specific time frames such as ‘twice a year’ or ‘once a month’. Also, the order of answers should follow a logical sequence – in the example above, they do not. It assumes that Green Peace is blackmailing the Government and assumes that someone knows about the issues and would be able to answer. A filter question would have to be used in this case and the word ‘blackmail’ changed. The word ‘wrong’ is emotive and sug- gests there is something not normal about the young people of today. It asks the respondent to distance themselves and comment from the moral high ground. This question may contain prestige bias – would peo- ple be more likely to say they have read plenty of books when they might not have read any? Also, the categories for the answers need modification – which box would you tick for someone who answered ‘20’? This question assumes knowledge and could only be asked of someone who has the figures to hand. It also asks for what could be confidential information which a respondent might be reluctant to give. The word ‘profit’ has different meanings for different people, especially if the question is asked by an inter- viewer, rather than read by the respondent. In an of- ten quoted case, when this question was used, the respondent took it to mean ‘prophet’ and as such was unable to answer the question. In this question it is assumed that the respondent thinks something should be done about global warn- ing and that they are able to comment on the issue. This question leads the respondent into having an opinion about something on which they might not otherwise have one. LENGTH AND ORDERING OF QUESTIONS When you’re constructing a questionnaire, keep it as short as possible. If it has to be longer because of the nat- ure of your research, think about whether your respon- dents will actually take the time to fill it in. Some people will do so if they feel there is some personal benefit to be gained. This is why long consumer behaviour sur- veys offer entry into large prize draws for completed ques- tionnaires. If your budget is limited, you might be able to offer a copy of the final report or other information which may be of use to the respondent as an incentive. Include filter questions with answers such as ‘If no, go to question 28’. Psychologically it’s good for respondents to be able to jump sections as it stops people becoming frustrated by unnecessary or irrelevant questions. As with interviewing or focus groups, when designing a questionnaire start with easy questions which respondents will enjoy answering, thus encouraging them to continue filling in the questionnaire. If you begin with complex questions which need long responses, your respondents will be less likely to fill in the form. If you’re constructing a combined questionnaire, keep your open-ended ques- tions for the end as, once someone has spent time com- pleting the rest of the questionnaire, they are more likely to continue with those questions which take a little more effort to complete. When constructing a questionnaire, you need to make it as interesting as possible and easy to follow. Try to vary the type and length of questions as variety provides inter- est. Group the questions into specific topics as this makes it easier to understand and follow.

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