By N. Seruk. Keiser University.
Immunocytochemical staining techniques using antibodies against ubiquitin have improved the identification of Lewy bodies purchase 20mg nolvadex fast delivery womens health hudson ny. More than 30% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease have Lewy bodies in the cortex and substantia nigra buy generic nolvadex 20mg women's health clinic overland park ks, whereas all Parkinson’s patients have cortical Lewy bodies. In addition to the diffuse distribution of Lewy bodies throughout the basal forebrain, brain stem, and hypothalamus, the lack of neurofi- brillary tangles in DLBD helps differentiate it from Alzheimer’s disease. Parkinsonism–Dementia–Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Complex of Guam Dementia and motor neuron disease are the most frequent presenting features in addition to the parkinsonian findings. It is commonly called spasmodic torticollis, but since it is not always spasmodic and does not always consist of torticollis (neck turning), the term cervical dys- tonia is preferred. Idiopathic dystonia Dystonia secondary to structural causes Skeletal – Atlantoaxial disloca- tion – Cervical fracture – Degenerative disk – Osteomyelitis – Klippel–Feil syndrome Fibromuscular – Fibrosis from local trauma or hemorrhage – Postradiation fibrosis – Acute stiff neck – Congenital torticollis Associated with absence or fibrosis of cervical muscles Infectious – Pharyngitis – Local painful lymph- adenopathy Neurological – Vestibulo-ocular dys- Fourth cranial nerve paresis, or labyrinthine disease function – Posterior fossa tumor – Chiari syndrome – Bobble-head doll syn- Third ventricular cyst drome – Nystagmus – Spinal cord tumor/syr- inx – Hemianopia – Extraocular muscle palsies, strabismus – Focal seizures Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Myoclonus 257 Myoclonus Posthypoxic Posttraumatic Heat stroke Myoclonic dementias – Alzheimer’s disease – Creutzfeldt–Jacob disease Basal ganglia diseases – Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration – Parkinson’s disease – Juvenile Huntington’s disease – Adult-onset Huntington’s disease – Olivopontocerebellar atrophy – Hallervorden–Spatz disease – Wilson’s disease Medication-induced myoclonus Toxic myoclonus Metabolic disorders – Uremia – Chronic hemodialysis – Hepatic failure – Hypercarbia – Hypoglycemia – Hyponatremia – Nonketotic hyperglycemia Viral infections Other disorders – Multiple sclerosis – Electric shock – Tumor – Decompression illness – After thalamotomy – After stroke Adapted from: Pappert EJ, Goetz CG. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Tic Disorders 259 Tic Disorders Primary tic disorders – Tourette’s syndrome – Chronic multiple mo- tor tic disorder – Chronic multiple vo- cal tic disorder – Chronic single motor tic disorder – Chronic single vocal tic disorder – Transient tic disorder Secondary tic disorders – Inherited! Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. The tremor is most prominent in the hands, although the cranial musculature is frequently affected (titubation), and voice tremor may occur Parkinsonian A pill-rolling type of tremor of 3–6 Hz, most prominent in tremor the rest and postural positions. The parkinsonian resting tremor is characteristically inhibited by voluntary move- ments, i. The tremor affects the hands, chin, lips, legs, and trunk; a head tremor is un- usual. Associated with other signs of parkinsonism, includ- ing bradykinesia, rigidity, positive glabellar reflexes, and impaired postural reflexes Cerebellar tremor Postural tremor of 3–8 Hz, mainly in a horizontal plane and most prominent with fine repetitive action of the ex- tremities (intention tremor). Tremors of the head (tituba- tion) and trunk usually involve midline cerebellar struc- tures. Associated with other signs of cerebellar ataxia Rubral (midbrain) A combination of resting, postural, and severe kinetic tremor tremor of 2–5 Hz. This tremor is uncommon but highly distinctive, and is resistant to symptomatic pharmacother- apy Posttraumatic Tremor of 2–8 Hz that can occur days to months after a tremor head injury, long after consciousness has been regained Psychogenic tremor Tremors are very common in hysteria. The tremors are complex and unclassifiable, have changing characteristics, are clinically inconsistent. Remission of the tremor occurs with psychotherapy Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Disorders Associated with Blepharospasm 261 Disorders Associated with Blepharospasm Blepharospasm is an involuntary, spasmodic closure of the eyelids that is preceded by increasing frequency and force of blinking. It is a form of focal dystonia, and in most cases, no cause can be found (essential blepharospasm). Combined with oromandibular dystonia, this is some- times known as Meige’s syndrome. Tardive dyskinesia and dystonia Parkinson’s disease Wilson’s disease Progressive supranuclear palsy Schwartz–Jampel syndrome Myotonia Tetanus Tetany Ocular disorders (anterior chamber disease) Midbrain disease (infarction or demyelination) Encephalitis Reflex blepharospasm Functional (hysterical) Hemifacial spasm Habit spasms Ticks (e. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Neurological Disorders of Stance and Gait 263 Neurological Disorders of Stance and Gait Supratentorial lesions White matter disease – White matter dis- Normal histology, but vascular or ischemic disease has ease in the elderly been present in cases with pronounced changes on MRI or CT – Leuko- Familial disorder of white matter disease may manifest encephalopathies itself as impaired gait; e. The lesions are clustered in the superior portion of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus and the suprathalamic white matter – Capsular and basal Small capsular lesions involving the most lateral por- ganglia lesions tion of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus, and multiple bilateral lacunae in the basal ganglia, can be attended by gait impairment Normotensive hydro- Significant dilatation of the lateral, third, and fourth cephalus ventricles and blunting of the callosocaudal angle causing spastic gait ataxia and urinary disturbances. Fibers destined for the leg region course in the poste- rior limb of the internal capsule and then ascend in the more medial portion of the corona radiata, near the wall of the lateral ventricle Bilateral subdural Unilateral chronic subdural hematomas cause a mild hematomas hemiparesis, speech and language disorders, and apraxia. Bilateral lesions present with gait failure, par- ticularly in elderly individuals Infratentorial lesions Pontomesencephalic The pedunculopontine region plays an important role gait failure in motor behavior. Loss of neurons in the area causes an acute onset of inability to walk, without hemipare- sis or sensory loss and lack of cadence or gait rhyth- micity. The gait deficit resembles the gait failure ex- perienced by many elderly individuals without a clear anatomical correlate Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Most often, patients with cerebellar lesions tend to fall to the side of the lesion Myelopathy The initial manifestation of a myelopathy is often gait or balance impairment Cervical spondylosis Advanced disease may lead to tetraparesis with a spastic–ataxic gait, and may be associated with radic- ular findings, such as pain and reflex changes Multiple sclerosis Gait or balance impairment and sensory changes may be the only manifestations of MS involving the spinal cord or, rarely, some of the higher levels of neuraxis AIDS:acquiredimmunedeficiencysyndrome;CT:computedtomography;MRI:magneticres- onance imaging; MS: multiple sclerosis. Types of Stance and Gait Watching the patient stand and walk is the single most important part of the entire neurological assessment and examination. Developmental gaits Neonatal automatic or When the infant is held upright and its feet touch the reflex stepping bed surface, it reflexly lifts its legs alternately and steps Infantile cruising The infant makes steps when steadied by a parent, or when holding on to a chair Toddler’s gait Broad-based, short, jerky, irregular steps, a semiflexed posture of the arms, and frequent falls Child’s mature gait Narrow-based, heel–toe stride, reciprocal swinging of the arms Neuromuscular gaits Clubfoot gait The gait depends on which of a variety of valgus– varus deformities exists In-toed or pigeon-toed When there is tibial torsion gait Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Types of Stance and Gait 265 Lordotic waddling gait In muscular dystrophy and polymyositis, these patients find it difficult to get up onto, or down from, the examining table, or difficult to stand up from a sit- ting or reclining position Toe-drop or foot-drop Because of paralysis of foot dorsiflexion, patients are gait unable to clear the floor, and consequently jerk the knee high, flipping the foot up into dorsiflexion, and characteristically slapping the foot down again – Unilateral foot drop This suggests a mechanical or compressive neu- ropathy of the common peroneal nerve or L5 root – Bilateral foot drop, Due to a symmetrical distal neuropathy of the toxic, or steppage gait metabolic, or familial type, as in alcoholic neuropathy or Charcot–Marie–Tooth progressive peroneal atrophy Heel-drop gait Due to paralysis of the tibial nerve, patients are unable to plantarflex the foot, although dorsiflexion is possible Flail-foot gait Due to complete sciatic palsy, patients are unable to either dorsiflex or plantarflex the foot Toe-walking gait Because of tight heel cords, the child has a limited dorsiflexion of the foot to about 90! This type of gait is seen in Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, in spastic diplegia, and in autistic or other retarded children Sensory gaits Painful sole or hyper- When patients set the foot down, they put as little esthetic gait weight on it as possible and raise it as soon as possible, hunching the shoulders – Unilateral In Morton’s metatarsalgia, a painful neuroma of an in- terdigital nerve, or gout – Bilateral In painful distal neuropathies of toxic, metabolic or al- coholic in origin Radicular pain gait or Compression of the L5 root from a herniated disk antalgic gait causing extreme pain radiating into the big toe, ag- gravated by coughing, sneezing, or straight leg rais- ing. The back is lordotic, and when patients walk they do not put any weight on the painful leg and take stiff, slow, short strides, with no heel strike.
What I want to outline is an ontology of value which underlies both the ethical aspects of medical decision making and all other aspects generic 20 mg nolvadex amex women's health center duluth. In fact 10 mg nolvadex sale menstruation youngest age, ethical values exist "in solution" so to speak, with physiologic, economic, social and psychological ones. They are not walled off, but are mixed with and determined in relation to these others. Pragmatic concerns, I would contend, do not generate a whole new theory of ethics, but can support considerations based in virtue ethics, duty ethics, contractarian ethics and consequentialism or utilitarianism. What pragmatism contributes is a dose of reality; showing how our ethical concerns can work only in concert with our other knowledge of, and values in, experience as a whole. The pretense that the categories, situations, persons and values involved in medical care can be described mathematically and addressed by rote is shown in the various chapters to be poorly supported. Virtues are indispensable both in making clinical decisions and carrying them out, and suggestions for nurturing them are given in conclusion. CHAPTER 1 COGNITIVE SEMANTIC STRUCTURES IN INFORMAL MEANS/ENDS REASONING "The physician is lost who would guide his activities of healing by building up a picture of perfect health, the same for all and in its nature complete and self-enclosed once for all. The forms are thus independent of the attitude taken by the thinker, of his desire and intention. This distinction has become important in assessing how best to resolve clinical problems in medicine. A useful working distinction between formal and informal reasoning closely follows that of Dewey quoted above, between "formal logic" and "actual thinking. The intent is to show how such structures contribute to our multiple senses of causation, and therefore inform diagnostic and treatment actions. The use of standards, of course, rests upon the identification of commonalities among situations and often, indeed, upon forcing them into common molds. Formal means/ends reasoning requires not only the universalization of particulars but also the quantification of 9 10 CHAPTER 1 qualities. The standardization project involves applying one or another variant of economic rationality to decision making. All of the varying formulae, however, make similar assumptions about the nature of entities, relations and categories of entities and relations, as well as similar assumptions about the assessment of value and the rules of reason. Formal means/ends reasoning demands that particular entities must be classifiable according to their essential features, and that entities having the same essential features can be treated in a protocol as identical. Clinical situations amenable to standardization must be replicable ensembles of such entities which can also be treated as identical. Additionally, outcomes of professional work need to be specifiable ensembles which can be classified and thought of generically. Just as situations must be specified, assigned to categories, and dealt with according to category assignment, there must also be a formula for valuation. Rational acts are those which maximize (and sometimes fairly distribute as well) these value units. The method of assessing value is predetermined and not subject to transformation through any particular professional encounter or experience. It is grounded in abstract relations which are mutually self-generating in an a priori symbolic realm and have nothing to do with the embodied circumstances of cognizing subjects. It happens, though, that for clinical reality to be specified and quantified as is claimed possible, it would need to have semantic elements (units of meaning) which could be related in the terms prescribed by this rational syntax, and causation would need to work for such reasoning much like entailment. In the calculus of economic rationality professional problems are compared to games. We must also know our present strategic positions and we must know which considerations are part of the game and what ones are not. Only if all this were possible would a "rational actor" be in a position to prove which strategies would maximize the chance of winning. Informal means/ends reasoning, in contrast to formal, is exemplified by clinical judgment. By informal reasoning, I mean the actual situated processes of human thinking and reasoning about ends and means. This "actual thinking" deals in images, emotions, and sensations understood on the basis of bodily experience. Informal reasoning considers emotion to be a way of connecting with and understanding the world. The fact that emotion occasionally misleads no more invalidates it as a means of understanding for informal reasoning than the existence of illusions invalidates sensory perception as a whole. Informal reasoning "weighs," it "sifts," it "balances" and it tries to "see what fits.
This example shows that when the man ac- celerates upward buy 10 mg nolvadex with amex womens health leadership trust, the force the bar exerts on the man is an upward force that is greater than the man’s body weight generic nolvadex 20mg with amex menopause and fatigue. Because action equals to re- action, this is also the force the athlete exerts on the bar as he pulls on the bar. Animals and humans jump to reach higher places, to leap over obstacles, or for competition. Volleyball and basketball players must react instantaneously to the ball and jump within C 69" 38" FIGURE 3. Videotapes of jumping events show that the entire duration of the propulsive stage of the human vertical jump, from back- ward rotation of the trunk to toe-off, lasts about 0. In this brief period of time, the angles between various segments of the lower body (feet, shank, thigh, and hips) change to lift the upper body (70% of the body weight) vertically. The mechanics of vertical jumping can be captured with reasonable accuracy by using a four-segment model of a human body composed of foot, shank, thigh, and the upper body (Fig. Here we consider a much simpler model in which a mass M (repre- senting the upper body) is attached to two slender bars of length L (weightless legs) as shown in Fig. The bars ab and bc must be con- nected by a muscle–tendon system that enables the bars to change the an- gle between them. If there was no such mechanism, the two bars would collapse onto the floor under the weight of mass M. Solution: The geometry of the assumed structure dictates that the spa- tial position of the point mass M at any time t is given by the equation: r 5 2L sin u e2 (3. At the instant the jumper leaves the ground, the ground reaction force P must be equal to zero. Let the lower limbs of the jumper be represented by two linked rods of length L 5 0. Furthermore, let us assume that at the time of the takeoff, u 5 60° and (d2u/dt2) 5 0. This means that, for the ground force to di- minish to zero, the angle between the shank and thigh must increase at a rate greater than 180°/s. If the legs straighten at lesser speed, jumping cannot occur because the ground will continue to exert some finite level of upward force. Schematic representation of a four-segment model of an athlete per- forming a vertical jump (a). The athlete performing the jump is represented by even a simpler model in (b): a mass representing the weight of the upper body is connected to two slender rods. Particles in Motion This simple analysis implies that action of hip, thigh, and calf muscles on the lower limbs must be fast enough for jumping to occur. Addition- ally, the analysis presented here shows that the upward velocity increases with increasing length of the slender bars ab and bc. According to the model, athletes with long legs reach higher velocities during vertical jumping than athletes with shorter legs, when both the short and the tall athletes have the same capacity for quick rotation of the thigh over the lower leg. Once the two-segment model lifts itself off the ground, how far will it travel in air? The only force acting on the airborne jumper is gravity, and therefore its center of mass will follow the equations of free fall presented in the previous chapter. To determine how far up the center of mass will reach, we need to determine its velocity at the time of takeoff. The verti- cal velocity at the time of the takeoff can be obtained by substituting L 5 0. After the takeoff, the path of the center of mass is determined by the following equations: a 52g e2 (3. In general, vertical distance traveled in air during jumping is equal to h 5 V 2/2g where V is the vertical velocity at the o o time of takeoff. Clearly, a mere summation is not enough to capture all the very important para- meters of motion. Intuitively, we know that whenever a force is applied further away from a pivot point, the better is its capacity to induce rotation. They are located at the free edge of the door rather than being close to the edge hinged to the wall. This way the distance between the axis of rotation and the force one ex- erts on the door when one wants to swing it open is maximized. To present this procedure in more detail, we introduce a brief syn- opsis of the vector multiplication. The scalar product (also called the dot product) of a and b is defined as the projection of one of the vectors onto the other: a? Note that the dot product can be positive or negative but has no direction, and there- fore it is a scalar. When a force acting on a particle is multiplied scalarly with the displacement of the particle, the product W is called the work done by that force. When a person resists a large force to remain at rest, the work done by this force is equal to zero because there is no displacement.
He is the editor of The Fam- ily Psychologist and 2005 president of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association cheap 20 mg nolvadex women's health clinic peterborough ontario. Steep discount nolvadex 20 mg without a prescription menopause 52 years old, PsyD, is a postdoctoral fellow in primary care at the Uni- versity of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. She did her intern- ship at the Medical College of Virginia, graduate work at Florida Institute of Technology, and her undergraduate work at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Particular areas of interest include mind-body medicine, medical/health psychology, primary care psychology, and motiva- tional interviewing. Robin Rose Temple, MA, MSW, CAC II, is a master teacher and trainer for the PAIRS Foundation, where she has been teaching for eight years. She holds post-master’s certification from the Gestalt Institute of Denver and the Family Therapy Training Center of Colorado, which recently awarded her the Alumnus of the Year Award for her work teaching PAIRS in the Front Range of Colorado. She is also certified as a Colorado addictions xviii ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS counselor and contributing author to the book Bridging Intimate Relation- ships. She is a de- voted mother of three, and she is passionate about healing relationships of all sorts. It is in her own marriage that she has learned the most about being part of a couple. Watson, PhD, is associate professor of psychiatry (psychology) and neurology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry/Strong Memorial Hospital. He is senior training faculty of the Family Therapy Training Program and is the family psychology consultant to the Strong Epilepsy Center. Areas of interest include spirituality in psy- chotherapy, family systems in the workplace, couples therapy, and a family systems understanding of mind/body problems. CHAPTER 1 Setting the Stage for Working with Couples Michele Harway N THE FAIRY TALE, the Prince and Cinderella fall in love, get married, and live happily ever after. In each Icase, the story seems to end at the moment of commitment and we are seldom privy to the adjustments that the couples must make in beginning a life together. And yet, the adjustment must be great or more couples would succeed in celebrating their Golden Wedding Anniversary (Kreider & Fields, 2002, based on U. Census data, cite only 5% of married couples reach at least their 50th anniversary). The same authors report 10% of mar- ried couples divorcing within 5 years of marriage and 20% of married cou- ples divorcing within 10 years of marriage. Some professionals (Nichols, Chapter 3) suggest that the first year of marriage (or of living together) is actually the most difficult year of a rela- tionship. This makes sense: Even when the couple has a similar cultural background, they have grown up in different families, whose daily living habits may differ on the most mundane issue (how to put the roll of toilet paper on the holder) to the somewhat more important issues (who is re- sponsible for what tasks in the home). These two individuals may have dif- ferent expectations of a relationship and different values on a wide variety of subtle and not-so-subtle topics. The differences may multiply when, in addition, the two come from different cultural groups. Faced with the com- plexities of ironing out those differences and the lack of support from the culture at large, it is not surprising that many couples simply give up. Yet, many psychotherapists begin seeing couples without extensive training in how to do couples work. The intention of this book is to fill in those gaps in mental health professionals’ repertoire. While much of this book focuses on heterosexual couples (often mar- ried), many of the issues we consider affect same-gender couples, as well as heterosexual cohabiting couples. Because there are issues with which same-gender couples struggle that are unique to their relationships, we have included a chapter that specifically addresses these couples. Recogniz- ing that cultural issues are very powerful determinants of couple inter- action, we have woven cultural issues into each chapter rather than having a separate chapter on this topic. We have considered work with couples from three perspectives: a develop- mental one, a theoretical one, and a situational one. Section I of this book looks at couples at different stages of the life cycle, since clearly different is- sues affect them at each stage and distinct therapeutic approaches to work- ing with them are appropriate. We have used McGoldrick’s life cycle stages (loosely construed) to guide us in our choices. Gordon, Temple, and Adams describe PAIRS, a premarital counseling curriculum, extensively de- signed to include a multiplicity of interventions to assist couples as they enter a committed relationship. He includes a discussion of the nature of mar- riage, cohabitation, and commitment; an overview of the tasks of the family cycle; and issues related to psychotherapy with couples in the early stages of the life cycle. Lower (Chapter 4) considers the difficult life transition to par- enthood and the adjustments that confront couples with young children. In Chapter 5, Mas and Alexander explore the four essential features of treat- ment based on clinical, research, and theoretical literature as applied to fam- ilies with adolescents. Highlighting the multiplicity of differences that such families may bring into the therapy room, these authors focus on cultural di- versity issues. Completing the part on life cycle stages, Peake and Steep (Chapter 6) examine novel ways to intervene with older couples capitalizing on their lived experience and using popular films and other resources as ad- juncts to psychotherapy.
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