By A. Hauke. University of Texas at El Paso. 2018.
The anterior rami of C5 and C6 converge plexus to supply cutaneous and muscular innervation to the to become the superior trunk quality 10 mg norvasc blood pressure psi, the C7 ramus becomes the mid- upper extremity (table 12 cheap norvasc 2.5 mg visa hypertension erectile dysfunction. J Pediatr Orthop 15(6):812- dient-recalled MR imaging: assessment of articular and physeal 816 hyaline cartilage. The result is an unbiased and pragmatic estimate of sensitivity and specificity. As discrimination itself can often be relatively rapidly assessed by means of a cross-sectional study, this may avoid new prospective studies. You will need to click “Browse” in order to find file types other than HTML. Do not feel that your openness will be held against you in a court- room. Each answer is explained, so students can effec- that a disruption of homeostasis frequently accompanies most diseases. Although they traverse other set of membranes called the sarcoplasmic reticulum the muscle fiber, T tubules do not open into its interior. Each Pregnancy may also put a strain on the erector spinae mus- of these groups, in turn, consists of overlapping slips of muscle. Newly formed red mucous membranes, gastric secretions, blood cells enter the bloodstream before and tears, which contain special chemicals they are totally mature. The only variable correlated with the outcome of litigation was the degree of injury. Some of these follicles mature during the ovarian cycle, and the ova they contain progress to the secondary oocyte Blood Supply and Innervation stage of meiosis. Identi- clinics, hospitals, or other facilities to pro- fying appropriate treatment, including the vide care. Answer E: The rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitu- (D) 2, 3, 5 dinal fasciculus receives cortical input from the frontal eye ﬁeld on (E) 3, 4, 5, 6 the ipsilateral side and projects to the ipsilateral (heavy) and con- tralateral (light) oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. The integrative actions of these ganglia are also somatic efferent actions require coordination to produce responsible for halting motility and secretion in the gas- many of these responses. The Hyperthyroidism (Graves’ Disease, adrenal cortex is essential to life. Meiosis occurs within the testes of males who have gone through puberty and involves two nuclear divisions, as summa- Sertoli cells: from Enrico Sertoli, Italian histologist, 1842–1910 rized in table 20. Which of the following structures is most likely located in (B) Facial this vascular territory? Androgen abuse has been associated with abnor- inhibit endogenous LH release through a negative-feed- mally aggressive behavior and the potential for increased back effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and lead incidence of liver and brain tumors. In some cases, the polycythemia becomes so which pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells undergo hy- severe (hematocrit 70%) at high altitude that blood has pertrophy and hyperplasia. Briefly describe reticular fibers, fibroblasts, collagenous leukocyte: Gk. However, its specificity is somewhat lower, especially in women younger than age 30 years. Describe the locations of the peripheral chemoreceptors chemoreceptors control breathing indirectly via sensory neurons and identify the two paired cranial nerves that carry sen- to the medulla oblongata. A breakthrough came when a high-affinity ligand, CP-55490, was synthesised. It is estimated that one in five individuals over the age of 60 will succumb to a heart attack. The contraction will be twitch-like, gether as the muscle becomes thinner. The extent of explanation the detail are dictated by a balance between the surgeon’s judgments about his or her patient and the legal requirements applicable. In some cases, advancing a both prevent second heart attacks and lower the risk of a first catheter into the blocked artery to expand the vessel and heart attack. They have a ligand-binding ex- 10 PART I CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY CLINICAL FOCUS BOX 1. Nutt, DJ, Glue, P, Lawson, C and Wilson, S (1990) Flumazenil provocation of panic attacks. About 30% of patients ure, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, develop amenorrhea that is not alleviated by weight gain. In addition, substance ing contact with others, or they may abuse may precipitate a seizure, which the become overcautious and hypervigilant. Pharmacological studies using synaptosomes have also provided evidence that the amount of transmitter that is released following their depolarisation is regulated by the activation of presynaptic receptors. This man is most bellar artery (lateral medullary or Wallenberg) syndrome. The Language Barrier The problems related to language barriers are well known to phy- sicians.
The Placenta Has Maternal and Fetal The fundamental anatomical and physiological structure Circulations That Allow Exchange Between for exchange is the placental villus order norvasc 10 mg visa heart attack lyrics 007. On radionuclide scanning generic norvasc 2.5 mg on line hypertension uncontrolled, postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism. You will need to click “Browse” in order to find file types other than HTML. Desired cells are har- The doctor clarifies this paradox by explaining that some cells in the vested from as many as 15 human fetuses and are then quickly body undergo structural changes in response to unusual stimuli. In females, FSH plasm of the pituitary gland (hypophysectomy) may be performed transcranially through the frontal bone or through the nasal cavity regulates the monthly development of the follicle and and sphenoidal sinus. The incidence is approximately 1 in 25,000, and the past decades [22, 51]. Surface and Regional © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Anatomy Companies, 2001 304 Unit 4 Support and Movement (a) Central incisor Second premolar Lateral incisor First premolar Canine Second premolar Central incisor Lateral incisor First premolar Canine (b) FIGURE 10. Each neuron depolarizes to the same degree, but the time for return to the baseline membrane po- tential differs for each. Hemoglobin, the red, oxygen-transporting protein of Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil erythrocytes, consists of a globin (or protein) portion and four heme groups, the iron-carrying portion. Generally, menstrual cycles and bleed- ing become irregular, and the cycles become shorter from the lack of follicular development (shortened follicular INFERTILITY phases). Individuals who sur- transfer, so almost total independence with vive these injuries require ventilatory some adaptations in the environment support in order to breathe and are total- may be achieved. This core curriculum summarizes in outline form the basic con- cepts of multiple sclerosis and MS nursing. Do not let the “pal” plaintiff attorney disarm you with his or her friendliness. The spermatic ducts store spermatozoa and transport them from Much of the ductus deferens is located within a structure the testes to the urethra. This evaluates the effects of drugs on the punished phase of drinking from a water spout (Vogel et al. The L-type calcium Coupling Trigger Contractions in GI Muscles channels in GI smooth muscle are essentially the same as those found in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. Granulosa cells do not produce circulating levels of progesterone characteristics estradiol from cholesterol because they (D) A reduction of ovarian inhibin do not have an active levels, followed by increased SUGGESTED READING (A) 17 -Hydroxylase circulating FSH Carr BR, Blackwell RE. Spermatozoa that survive can reach the ampulla prevents new ovulatory cycles. Cell bodies in the PNS generally occur in clusters called structurally and functionally. Although vertigo can be associated with many conditions, it is always related to Presbycusis the body’s vestibular system. The paired postero- lateral fontanels, also irregularly shaped, are located on the Objective 9 List the fontanels and discuss their functions. Detailed facts about medical treatment also reside primarily with defendants. A fur- ther decline in blood glucose concentration into the hy- Liver Stimulation of glycogenolysis poglycemic range produces marked catecholamine release. Sometimes, anesthesia records include minimal or no documentation of the informed consent, rendering oth- erwise defensible claims more problematic. It is also the place to apply pressure in case mary gland, which is positioned on the pectoralis major mus- of severe arterial hemorrhage in the forearm or hand. In- nine phosphorylation or dephosphorylation is involved in sulin promotes glycogen storage primarily through two en- many of the final steps of insulin action. The Effect of Changes in Cardiac Output Balanced by change in volume ( V1) causes the change in pressure ( P1). The endolymph is secreted by the stria vascularis, ocilia (about 100 per hair cell) are also arranged in three a layer of fibrous vascular tissue along the outer wall of the rows that form an exaggerated W figure. The 2001 Consensus Guidelines for Cervical Cyto- logical Abnormalities sponsored by the American Sociesty for Colpos- copy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) are recommended (13). These programs offer individuals remediation strategies designed to amelio- therapies designed to improve functioning rate sensory/perceptual, language-related, or to help them develop social skills, or and problem-solving deﬁcits may be a they may provide care and supervision for major focus of the rehabilitation effort. The dorsal border of the stomach undergoes more rapid Midgut growth than the ventral border, forming a distinct curvature. Axial views of the midbrain (B, T1-weighted), pons (C, continuous one with the other. Sometimes, ligament is the primary restraint to valgus force in the a fortuitous axial slice through the lateral meniscus is the knee, providing 60-80% of the resistance, depending on only image that demonstrates the tear and allows diag- the degree of knee flexion (greatest stabilizing role oc- nostic confidence. The time taken by any individual channel to assume its new level of open probability varies stochastically about a mean. An example of short-term memory is look- Much of our knowledge about human memory forma- ing up a telephone number, repeating it mentally until you tion and retrieval is based on studies of patients in whom finish dialing the number, then promptly forgetting it as stroke, brain injury, or surgery resulted in memory dis- you focus your attention on starting the conversation. It also seems that the cholinergic input into the cortex from subcortical nuclei can also be included in this category (see Chapter 5).
The sacral branches emerge from the ante- rior sacral foramina of the sacrum and form Genitofemoral Nerve (L1 norvasc 5mg on line prehypertension blood pressure symptoms, L2) together with the lumbosacral trunk the The genitofemoral nerve (A10) divides al- sacral plexus; the main nerves originating ready in order norvasc 5mg amex hypertension 130100, or on, the psoas muscle into two from here are the sciatic nerve (A4) (common branches, the genital branch and the femoral peroneal nerve [A5] and tibial nerve [A6]). Progesterone secretion by the corpus Progesterone is required to maintain normal human preg- luteum is maximal 4 to 5 weeks after conception and de- nancy. Such a scheme is supported by evidence that local infusion of a 5-HT1A agonist into these areas reduces REM sleep, presumably by inhibition of mesopontine cholinergic neurons by postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. If coughing and Training that helps individuals increase swallowing ability is insufﬁcient, aspira- posture control and the use of braces and tion of food or ﬂuids may place individ- splints can retard the development of uals at risk of respiratory infections or degenerative joint disease and scoliosis. Construct a table that lists the periods of postnatal growth appendages relative to sitting height; moreover, the forearm and from infancy through adolescence and indicate the events leg are long relative to the brachium and thigh (fig. As we become drowsy and pass into sleep the EEG waves become more synchronised with 8±12 Hz alpha waves (b), sleep spindles then appear (c) before the EEG becomes even more synchronised with slow (about 1±2 Hz) high-voltage waves characteristic of deep slow-wave sleep (SWS). One advantage of microdialysis is that it enables the study of transmitter release in specific brain areas or nuclei. After losing ovarian steroidal support, the superfi- hCG in early pregnancy is the stimulation of luteal cial endometrial layer of the uterus is expelled, resulting in steroidogenesis. The reticular forma- drops, reflexes fail, and the electric stimula- tion is reached by impulses of all sensory tion of the motor cortex no longer triggers a modalities. One of the oxidants generated by the myeloperoxidase reaction is hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the killing agent found in 4. As arterial pressure is raised and (A) Increased blood flow when the (C) Tissue hypertonicity and the lowered during the course of a day, heart workload is increased release of nitric oxide onto the blood flow through the brain would be (B) Increased vascular resistance when arterioles expected to the arterial blood pressure is increased (D) Blood flow-mediated dilation by (A) Change in the same direction as (C) Decreased blood flow when mean the major arteries of the abdominal the arterial blood pressure because of arterial pressure is reduced from 90 to cavity the limited autoregulatory ability of 60 mm Hg by hemorrhage (E) Increased parasympathetic nervous the cerebral vessels (D) Decreased blood flow when blood system activity associated with food (B) Change in a direction opposite the oxygen content is reduced absorption change in mean arterial pressure (continued) CHAPTER 17 Special Circulations 289 (C) Remain about constant because (B) Ductus venosus, foramen ovale, (C) The upper body is perfused by the cerebral vascular resistance changes in right ventricle, ascending aorta ductus arteriosus blood flow the same direction as arterial pressure (C) Spiral artery, umbilical vein, left (D) The heart takes less of the oxygen (D) Fluctuate widely, as both arterial ventricle, umbilical artery from the blood in the left ventricle pressure and brain neural activity status (D) Right ventricle, ductus arteriosus, (E) The right ventricular stroke volume change descending aorta, umbilical artery is greater than that of the left ventricle (E) Remain about constant because the (E) Left ventricle, ductus arteriosus, cerebral vascular resistance changes in pulmonary artery, left atrium SUGGESTED READING the opposite direction to the arterial 7. Distension of the bladder is sensed by stretch receptors and its sphincters are controlled by the nervous system. State regulators prohibited additional writing because of the precari- ous financial position of the company or regulatory violations. Immunocompromised patients are at partic- Local pathoanatomic changes are similar to those seen ular risk. Anesthesiologists may be particularly vulnerable in this circumstance because they do not have a consistent and loyal patient base and have only transient relationships with the other physicians with whom they work. Consequently they appear to produce some beneficial effect on the negative symptoms. Specialized Groups Duration of treatment with antipsychot- Individuals with some types of mental ic medications is determined individual- illness may neglect their own needs of dai- ly and based on individuals’ life situation ly living, including personal hygiene, and condition. Salpingitis (sal-pin-gi-tis) is ductive system may occur during the formation of the uterus and an inflammation of one or both uterine tubes. In Bladder problems resulting from multi- other cases, individuals who have searched ple sclerosis may cause embarrassment, for years for an explanation for their causing the individual to withdraw from vague and elusive neurological symptoms social and work activities. Laser night vision (night blindness), which usu- treatment is usually performed on an out- ally begins in late youth or early adult- patient basis. Consequently, attempts to in- ning in patients with fractures at the ends of long bones, terpret such images may lead to diagnostic errors. Zollikofer Ch L (2001) Musculoskeletal Diseases - Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Techniques. I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work. The value of E is dictated by the net result of these chloride- Cl extruding or accumulating mechanisms. Male pseudohermaphroditism occurs more frequently and generally results from hormonal influences during early fetal Semen development. In fact a high proportion of some orally administered drugs can be lost in this way without even reaching the main bloodstream but those given sub- lingually (under the tongue) or by suppository into the rectum bypass the portal system. Retroposterolateral nucleus (A13) marginal zone (nucleus posteromarginalis) In the region supplying the upper limbs, the (A2). Our goal has been to provide a source of reliable information on a subject of importance to all who provide medi- cal care in the United States. In addition to gas exchange, the pul- systemic vascular resistance has for the left ventricle. Answer D: The restiform body is a large ﬁber bundle located in parasympathetic preganglionic ﬁbers to the ciliary ganglion from the posterolateral area of the medulla in the region served by pos- which postganglionic ﬁbers travel to the sphincter muscle of the terior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The role of the A1 receptor, more concentrated on GABA/SP neurons and linked to D1 receptors, is even less clear although there is evidence that these two adenosine receptors have reciprocal effects. The intestinal GLUT 2, like the erythrocyte GLUT 1, is a sodium-independent trans- porter that moves glucose down its concentration gradient. Breast cancer in men individual rights (those of the mother and those of the fetus), the is usually fatal. This implies that diagnostic data analysis can be more pragmatic, seeking for the best correlates. Osteoclasts promote bone resorption by secreting Osteoblasts are located on the bone surface and are re- acid and proteolytic enzymes into the space adjacent to sponsible for osteoid synthesis.
Why would the chest and arms require skin grafting norvasc 5 mg with mastercard blood pressure for heart attack, but probably not the face and neck? Cognitive (D) The corpus callosum diagnosis of mania and started her on a neuroscience and the study of memory purchase 5 mg norvasc visa arrhythmia unborn baby. Thus animals with MPTP-induced Parkinsonism not only show extensive gliosis in the substantia nigra (like humans) in which the glial cells produce NO, but Liberatore and colleagues have found that in iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) knock-out mice the toxicity of MPTP is halved. The examination reveals that (E) Resting tremor muscles around the oral cavity and of the cheek are poorly developed or absent. The “long tail” of malpractice insurance—a prod- uct of both prefiling and postfiling delay—impairs insurers’ ability to accurately estimate their exposure, makes insurer profits dependent on investment yields, and heightens the risk of insurer insolvency prior to claims resolution, all of which increase premium volatility and threaten availability and affordability of coverage during crisis periods. Many years later, other investigators used immuno- fluorescence techniques to demonstrate that beta cells pro- duce insulin and alpha cells produce glucagon. However, about 40% of the maining T4 and T3 in the blood are bound to transthyretin T4 secreted by the thyroid gland is converted to T3 by enzy- or to albumin. Adrenocorticotropin serum cortisol, and decreased serum to result in a decreased rate of (ACTH)- and non-ACTH-mediated insulin aldosterone release? In addition, it is also used to transport many solutes through Proteins are nitrogen-containing organic compounds composed the cell membrane of a cell or from one part of the cell to an- of amino acid subunits. The tubules are arranged in lobules, separated by tion led to a search for a gonadal factor that specifically in- extensions of the tunica albuginea, and open on both ends hibits FSH release. With a Ki for inhibition of noradrenaline uptake of 4 mM, even this drug, the most selective of all the SSRIs, could still express this inhibition in patients. The cecum quires 3 to 10 hours to travel the length of the small intestine. The one thing that is reasonably certain about the neuroleptics is that irrespective of the role of D2 antagonism in controlling schizophrenia the more potent the D2 antagonist, the more likely are EPSs. Their findings confirmed what was constructions with blocks and drawing maps, and in musi- already known: Sensory and motor functions are con- cal sense, artistic sense, and other higher functions that trolled by cortical structures in the contralateral hemi- computers seem less capable of emulating. Which of the following structures is most likely located in (B) Facial this vascular territory? The nurse is in an excellent position to educate patients and families about nutrition. In most of the and clothing—enables humans to live in the most extreme skin, the vasodilation that occurs during heat exposure de- climates in the world, but it does not provide fine control pends on sympathetic nerve signals that cause the blood of body heat balance. Also, for such subjects the indication to test is less clear than for patients who experienced an “iatrotropic” stimulus2 to visit a doctor at the very moment that they want their health problem to be solved. However, the synthesis of receptors comprising different combinations of subunits has shown that the activity of these drugs depends greatly on subunit composition. Similarly, an anesthesiologist should not leave an unstable mother unattended to assist with her newborn. One treatment for gout is to pro- - Cl + mote urinary excretion of uric acid by administering drugs Cl- K that inhibit its tubular reabsorption. These effects are consistent with the neurons being overstimulated and depolarised as a result of chronic neuroleptic dosing and so requiring to be hyperpolarised (inhibited) in order to become active. All exchanges of fluid, nutrients, and and hemoglobin) in the erythrocytes. Either a reduction or an increase in noradrenergic transmission produces a functional mismatch and diminishes coping. One benefit of insulin resistance in the secretion the mother during pregnancy is (C) Increases the release of dopamine (A) Cortical reaction (A) A reduction of her plasma glucose from the arcuate nucleus (B) Enzyme reaction concentrations (D) Triggers the release of oxytocin by (C) Acrosome reaction (B) The blockage of the development stimulating the supraoptic nuclei (D) Decidual reaction of diabetes mellitus in later life (E) Reduces PRL secretion from the (E) Inflammatory reaction (C) The increased availability of pituitary 6. Spikes gradually predominate after some 26 min (phase e) until they group to give a full ictal seizure at 30 min (phase f). This pressure is determined by the water volume in the interstitial space Dehydration and tissue distensibility. Telencephalon and diencephalon become separated by the telodiencephalic sulcus (B11). This laboratory manual emphasizes learning anatomical structures through visual observation, palpation, and knowledge of Test Item File the functional relationship of one body system to another. Female Reproductive © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development System Companies, 2001 740 Unit 7 Reproduction and Development Mammary alveoli with Secretory secretions tubules Interlobular connective tissue (a) (b) FIGURE 21. Category Score Movement is not consistent and does not appear to have a purpose. These injuries are of- ten associated with similar fractures of the distal ulna. The These multinuclear giant cells resorb both calcified bone strength of bone is related not only to its hardness and and cartilage.
The surface fibers extend transversely to connect with the cerebellum through the middle cerebellar pe- duncles buy norvasc 2.5 mg low cost pulse pressure 90. Prenatal oocyte in vitro (outside the body) norvasc 5 mg without prescription blood pressure chart for children, culture it to the blastocyst development is amazingly precise, and although traumatic, child- stage, and then perform artificial implantation, leading to a full- birth for most women in the world takes place without the aid of term development and delivery. Implications of variation in discriminative power and calibration of tests: questions to ask yourself before you start designing the study 1 What is the target condition and the reference standard? The major lipids in bile are phospholipids and choles- Thus, most of the hepatic bile is stored in the gallbladder terol. If an increase in heart rate the aorta and major arteries is dependent on mean arterial is balanced by a proportional and opposite change in stroke pressure, meaning that pulse pressure is indirectly depend- volume, mean arterial pressure does not change because car- ent on mean arterial pressure. The majority of pores permit only molecules with a radius less than 3 to 6 nm to pass through the vessel wall. The eight bones of the cranium articulate firmly with one another to en- A prominent sagittal suture extends the anteroposterior close and protect the brain and sensory organs. Partly as an anxiolytic SHORT-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS Sodium valproate GM PM 6 also 1 Inhibition of GABA metabolism ME (and 2) too slow to explain initial anti- convulsant effect. Some ger test is also used to demonstrate an intention tremor and to assess nucleocortical ﬁbers are collaterals of cerebellar efferent axons. We saw an example of a sensitivity analysis in our discussion of the error rate, when we looked what the error rate would have been if the pretest probability of stenosis had been different from the 30% in the study. As with physician “report cards,” the general principal idea behind Web- based malpractice information is to help consumers make better deci- sions about their care. This allows the heart to adjust Cardiac muscle contraction cycle Long starting length 4 High load 3 B 2 C A 1 D 0 Skeletal muscle contraction cycle Low afterload 2 3 4 5 Muscle length 4 4 4 Short Long 3 3 3 Afterload B 2 B 2 B 2 C C A C A D A 1 1 1 D D 0 0 0 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 Muscle length Muscle length Muscle length FIGURE 10. Hypertension causes damage 60 to the arterial system, the myocardium, the kidneys, and the nervous system, including the retinas. By assembling a large enough group, the burden on any individual, even those faced with large claims, can be reduced. Some amphetamine derivatives, including methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), are also substrates for the transporter and, as a result, competitively inhibit noradrenaline uptake. Attachments around At the very back of the eye is the inner- the circumference of the lens, called ciliary most coat of the eye, the retina. The air in the cuff is slowly released until blood can leak past the occlusion at the peak of systole. The apex of the lung is also very close to the sympathetic chain in the upper groups are in direct opposition to one another and hold the knee in a thorax and the neck. Dysphagia is difﬁculty in swallowing, and aphagia is ganglia are located in the gut and receive input from the dorsal mo- the inability to eat. The first 22 pairs of chromo- somes are called the autosomal chromosomes. Embedded in the muscles of the body wall are 12 pairs of ribs, each pair attached posteriorly to a thoracic vertebra. When a SR, and the calcium then diffuses the short distance to the 184 PART III MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY CLINICAL FOCUS BOX 10. The nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve (AB1) sopharyngeal nerve, as well as all taste fibers, (tongue muscles) terminate. The ball continues to travel away from the paddle after you pull back because the inertial force on the 30 ball exceeds the force generated by the rubber band. Picture yourself playing bas- related meniscal or cartilage tear may also occur. The net effect on alveolar ventilation is probably a slight reduction, but this is achieved by averaging intervals of frank tachypnea (exces- THE CONTROL OF BREATHING DURING SLEEP sively rapid breathing) with intervals of apnea. The last one is particularly troublesome, because it says our system does not reward even the responsible exercise of clini- cal judgment unless the outcome is perfect. Randomised designs for a single test A slight modification of the design in Figure 4. The production of lactic acid by the heart is an omi- nous sign of grossly inadequate oxygenation. The final definition of normal sets its limits at the level of BNP beyond which specific treatments for LVD (such as ACE inhibitors) have been shown conclusively to do more good than harm. The pattern of marrow destruction is distinct from is common in children and intravenous drug abusers the appearance of an occult bone infarct. The benzodiazepines are particularly effective against experimentally induced PTZ seizures. With fluid loss, the circulating blood vol- ume is reduced, compromising cardiovascular function, which may lead to circulatory failure.
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